Obesity is defined as a medical condition in which the excess body fat accumulates to the extent that it can have negative effect on health, leading to a reduced life expectancy and several health problems. However, weight loss surgery is recommended if you cannot lose weight and are keeping it off by maintaining a healthy diet, and lifestyle. Doctors often use BMI and other health conditions like Type 2 diabetes and high blood pressure to determine who are the patients who are likely to benefit from weight loss surgery. The patients who are the right candidates for surgery are those with a BMI>32.5 kg/m2; those who are suffering from co-morbidities like diabetes; or patients with BMI>37.5kg/m2 (with or without associated co-morbidities).
HOW IS BMI CALCULATED?
18.5 - 23.5
23.5 - 27.5
27.5 - 37.5
Super Super Obese
CAUSES OF OBESITY
Genetics: Genetics are responsible for affecting hormones in fat regulation. A person is more likely to be obese if one or both parents are obese.
Lack of Caloric Balance: If you are eating more calories than your body is using, there is a possibility that the extra calories get stored and you can gain weight.
An Inactive Lifestyle: Lack of physical exercise and involvement in leisure activites like television and computers as well as mechanization of jobs is also developing obesity.
Our environment: Easily available processed and unhealthy foods, and oversized food portions increases the chances of obesity.
Medications: Few medications associated with weight gain include antidepressants,anticonvulsants, diabetes medications, steroids, and some high blood pressure medications and antihistamines.
Psychological factors: Factors like emotional stress, anger, sadness can also lead to weight gain, as people tend to eat more during such conditions.
Diseases: Conditions like hypothyroidism, insulin resistance, polycystic ovary syndrome, and Cushing's syndrome also contribute to obesity.
Those people who are morbidly obese are at a greater risk of illnesses like diabetes, high blood pressure, sleep apnea, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), gallstones, osteoarthritis, heart disease, infertility and cancer. Morbid obesity is a state of severe obesity and is defined by the following condition:
If a person has a BMI above 37.5 with or without associated illness or BMI above 32.5 with diseases like diabetes, hypertension are considered to be morbidly obese.
COMMON OBESITY RELATED CONDITIONS
· Type 2 diabetes
· High blood pressure
· Heart disease
· Joint pains/ Osteoarthritis
· Gastroesophageal reflux disease
· Gallstone disease
· Increased chances of developing cancer of breast, prostate ,colon, uterus and ovaries.
· Sleeping disorders like Obstructive sleep apnea
· Infertility/Polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD)
· Depression/Anxiety/low self esteem
WHAT ARE THE TREATMENT OPTIONS?
The various treatment options available for obesity are as follows:
Diet and Exercise: If BMI >23.5, certain lifestyle modifications, changes in diet, increase in physical activities, and practicing healthy eating habits can reduce obesity.
Weight loss drugs: If BMI > 27.5 with co-morbidities or >30 with or without co-morbidities, pharmacotherapy with weight loss drugs is reecommended. Close medical monitoring is required while taking a prescribed weight-loss medications.
Surgery: If BMI >32.5 with co-morbidities or >37.5 with or without co-morbidities, bariatric surgery is the right choice of treatment. Weight loss surgery for obesity may be considered if other methods to lose weight have not worked.
TYPES OF BARIATRIC AND METABOLIC SURGERY
Bariatric surgery is considered to be the most effective treatment for obesity. The bariatric surgical procedures causes weight loss by restricting the amount of food, causing mal-absorption of nutrients, or a combination of gastric restriction and mal-absorption. Most weight loss surgeries are performed using minimal invasive techniques (laparoscopic surgery).
The choice of the surgical procedure depends on the treating surgeon and the team after evaluation and counselling. Common Bariatric surgery options which are available are:
· Gastric Bypass
· Sleeve Gastrectomy
· Minigastric bypass
· Gastric bands
Oit Center of Excellence in Bariatric Surgery offers all the different types of weight loss surgeries including revision surgeries with success rates comparable to international standards. The commitment of our consultants and allied specialists in the treatment of Morbid Obesity has led to the achievement of better outcomes and improved quality of life for hundreds of obese patients who visit us each year. The additions of second generation Single Incision Laparoscopy surgeries and the latest Robotic surgical options have put our center right among the advanced Bariatric centers of the world.
Bariatric surgery or weight loss surgery includes a variety of procedures performed on people who have morbid obesity. Weight loss is achieved by reducing the size of the stomach with a gastric band or through removal of a portion of the stomach (sleeve gastrectomy or biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch) or by resecting and re-routing the small intestine to a small stomach pouch (gastric bypass surgery).